Soft to Solid: Blade Mode’s Inversions


Who would you rather be? image credit: famousmonsters

The contemporary cybernetic resurrection of Metal Gear’s Raiden as a stealth-absconding robo-ninja warrior is the makeover nobody in the gaming world saw coming. In the heyday of the Playstation 2, when dinosaurs roamed the cellular networks and calls dropped like flies, Raiden’s debut in the stealth espionage game MGS2: Sons of Liberty polarized the global gaming community. Popular in Japan, derided in the West, he represented a radical departure from Solid Snake, the original protagonist not only of the previous entries in the Metal Gear series but also of the opening chapter of Sons of Liberty.


image credit: deathbattlefanon

For some critics, the very sounds of his name (not “RAY-din,” but “WRY-din”) dredge up repressed memories of asking for the coolest tough-guy spy this side of MI6 and getting, instead, some doll-faced wannabe Dante (pictured above, left) with an inferiority complex and a bad case of motor-mouth. Readers who have not played Sons of Liberty, the embedded video is for you. This is Raiden, hunting the terrorist Solid Snake — but not The Solid Snake. Remember that these scenes are taken from a direct sequel to a game in which you play as Solid Snake, not Raiden, and Solid Snake is undeniably heroic (and not at all a terrorist). You can see how this nonsense might not go over so well.

Of all candidates to be turned into a time-bending cybernetic samurai for a contemporary AAA action game, Raiden might have been the darkest of the dark horses. In action movie terms, he was never a Murphy. How is he suddenly a top-of-the-line Robocop gone rogue? (Guns of the Patriots has the canonical explanation.)


image credit: giantbomb

Reversals and re-characterizations are not unprecedented in the Metal Gear universe. James Clinton Howell has identified patterns of role inversion and toying with players’ expectations throughout the franchise. His entire study comes highly recommended. This article would not have been possible without his in-depth original research.

In a previous post, I pointed out similarities between the emotionalism of current-gen Lara Croft and that of Raiden. If you’re old like me and you lived through the Sons of Liberty debacle, you’ve seen the ire directed at Raiden. His name alone could have marked his stars as an unwelcome heir to a sacred gaming tradition. Let’s remember that Midway’s Raiden got top billing on the 1995 Mortal Kombat movie. Metal Gear’s Raiden was starting out in Frank Sinatra, Jr. territory.


Raiden Wins. image credit: youtube

As it happened, Raiden’s disappointing quality grew out of more than ill-begotten nomenclature. Raiden was an embodiment of inexperience in the field. His wishy-washy personality, antithetical to Metal Gear’s legacy of cool masculinity, sealed his fate as a claim jumper. Ironically, perhaps, Raiden was intended to be an emotionally available sensitive-type to appeal to female gamers. Consider the following taken from an official design document obtained by Kotaku.

With Raiden (someone appealing to women), instead of Snake, as the main character, we will have a character in which women can more easily empathize. He is the antithesis of the older, hard-boiled image of Snake.

The document (here in full) gives the impression that a woman is not a person but a weakly encrypted algorithmic machine, one among many, all virtually the same in function if not in form.


image credit: youtube

Raiden’s perceived femininity and Western fanboys’ categorical rejection of his personality were, in hindsight, sparks of bigotry becoming embers becoming a social trashfire becoming Gamergate. In our Gamergater-infested social media, some brave and intelligent gamers have explored the gaming industry’s attitudes towards the feminine mystique and, in return, found their private inboxes inundated with direct and often explicitly laid-out threats of personal violence from dumb hateful self-proclaimed “men.”

Misogyny, homophobia, biphobia, and transphobia are different masks for the same stupid monster. The hatred of PS2-era Raiden shares a lineage with Gamergate-era hatred of DMC: Devil May Cry’s black-haired Dante.


Not on new Raiden’s watch. image credit: ultraguy9000.deviantart

Both old Raiden and new Dante are whiny pretty-boy replacements for established tough-as-nails male heroes of franchises poisoned by arbitrary sex-inequality and heteronormative phallocentrism. If Sons of Liberty were available on Steam, its page would likely be given the “female protagonist” tag at some point. Games with heroes perceived as effeminate have been given this label on occasion, not by any company or marketing firm but by some classless clown with a Steam user account and at least a mild distaste for traditionally (i.e. arbitrarily) feminine traits.


Raiden, bound, demoralized, interrogated, tortured, humiliated in Sons of Liberty. image credit: pscicocine

A simplistic notion of what women want leads, in turn, to a simplistic concept of womanhood. Stephen Keating over at Et Tu, Gamer? has shown how misogynistic and chauvinistic caricatures of femininity are the rule, not the exception, in the Metal Gear universe. It’s a franchise in which a woman can be an incompetent innocent to be protected, possessed, drooled over, patronized, et cetera; a scheming would-be helper who at the moment of truth is revealed to have been secretly malevolent all along; or just plain evil through-and-through.


Revengeance concept art. image credit: wikia

In retrospect, early Raiden had no chance of winning the American gamer popular vote. Tough-guy Solid Snake goes in, single-handedly brings down a ship full of terrorists under cover of night. But it’s a trap! The heretofore unconquerable Snake goes missing, is presumed drowned. Fade to black. A soft-skinned wunderkind, who, like a bad drag queen with perfect hair, “skates on pretty,” comes out crying.

He’s tragically uncool. Consider the discussion of the cardboard box in the embedded video. Solid Snake can turn a cardboard box into a Future Solder’s cloaking device; Raiden can’t sneak past a pigeon without wrecking a perfectly good one-piece. Konami poked fun at Raiden’s decidedly mixed appeal in Snake Eater, Sons of Liberty’s direct sequel, by giving audiences the false impression that, despite the box art, this was yet another of Raiden’s misadventures — until the mask came off.


Pictured: Snake. No, really. image credit: wikia

Raiden’s hotheadedness and refusal to listen to reason do not, in and of themselves, contradict the archetype of the American hero. Americans love closed-minded hotheads in movies and television shows. Why wouldn’t they love a closed-minded hothead in a video game with film-quality cinematography? Alas, the character of Raiden would have fit the archetype but for a conspicuous absence of rugged individualism, the primary ingredient in American heroism. He is needy. Neediness runs contrary to quintessentially American posturing and smells of pity, collaboration, collusion, Socialism.


image and text credit: pageofreviews

Now, take a look at the breathtaking seven-minute trailer for Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance.

Raiden’s transformation from a wretch to a savior is as dramatic as the absurd transformations promised by Pray the Gay Away fascistic re-education camps. He has been redeemed — a warrior, a “samurai.” The explicit designation of Raiden as a “samurai” here is telling. Consider the following excerpt originally taken from the work of Gary Leupp, quoted in this excellent article on homosexuality among samurai. The bracketed text is mine.

“Nanshoku [literally translated as ‘male colors,’ a phrase explicitly connected to homosexual longing among men],” according to the Nanshoku Yamaji No Tsuyu (Dew on the Mountain Path of Nanshoku, 1730), “is the flower of the military class.” The popular writer Ejima Kiseki (1667-1736) added, “Nanshoku is the pastime of the samurai. How could it be harmful to good government?”


image credit: ign

The new cybernetic samuRaiden (slicing and dicing ladykiller extraordinaire) fits neatly in with the series’ longstanding traditions of flashy visuals, thrilling gameplay, haphazard storytelling, and problematic representations of the individual identities who comprise under-represented and routinely exploited social groups. By making Raiden conform to the same gender biases as Solid Snake, his one-time antithesis, MGR: Revengeance represents a new inversion of identities with the same old closed and broken value system. Per the embedded official trailer, Raiden was stripped of his dignity, “A Man forced to Kneel [and] Suffer,” but no more! Now, thanks to the magic of science, Raiden’s on top and his blade does the penetrating. Call it “progress.”


image credit: robocop.wikia

Revolution Upon Revolution, Rejoice!


image credit: gameinformer

This article is dedicated to the incomparable Chumbucket, the black-fingered hunchback with the best words in Avalanche Studios’ 2015 AAA action title Mad Max. Voiced by Jason Spisak, Chumbucket does not appear in Mad Max: Fury Road but he is the heart of the Mad Max licensed video game. A scarred mutant, Chumbucket thrives in the wasteland left over from when the world was killed. In the wasteland, meaning is hard to come by. Speaking feverishly, Chumbucket breaks down the grammatical vehicle into its noisy parts, strips it down to its frame, retools its engine, and puts it back together one piece at a time. Chumbucket says his Magnum Opus is the perfect 8-cylinder car, the plans for which he has scrawled on the wall, but this is a lie: His real Magnum Opus is the stream-of-consciousness blithering with which he livens up a dead world.


image credit: wikia

It is a very dead world, indeed. Bleakness made beautiful, Mad Max’s wasteland is a junkyard playground for DIY anarchists and nonsense-spouting mechanics. The star of Mad Max is neither Max himself nor Chumbucket but the nightmarish scenery. In an industry fraught with game franchises featuring soulless post-apocalyptic scenarios, Mad Max’s wasteland setting is gorgeous and thoroughly realized.


image credit: reddit

The world of Mad Max is completely scarred by the violent dissolution of the old order. This means massive shipwrecks in the sand dunes and other mean evidence of a past where water must have been abundant. The game’s wasteland (different in some respects from that of the Fury Road movie) is divided into Gas Town, The Great White, and Dead Barren’s Pass, each with its own distinct flavor of post-apocalyptic devastation, each crawling with ramblers and ne’er-do-wells who spit vitriol as backwoods preachers are wont to do in our world. Evidence suggests that the apocalyptic event was a nuclear one. Skeletal remnants of a lost civilization’s structural feats of Ozymandian hubris have become valuable scrap heaps for the War Boys, a deranged collective of sand pirates who reap chaos with a fervor explicitly religious and ritualistic in character.


Traditionally, the Apocalypse (there can be only one) indicates not a nuclear holocaust but rather Revelation on a universal scale. All becomes clear, the veil of deception is lifted, the doors of perception are cleansed, et cetera.


image credit: lifehackquotes

As the Bookish (though not bookish) parse it, the Apocalypse is a once-and-done divine judgment, a final reckoning, an expression of love and wrath as political and as societal as it is spiritual and metaphysical. All humanity must suffer its truth. How your immortal soul fares depends on which aspects of the mythos you’ve chosen as your favorites, as well as which Holy Holy Holy! edition of the Saints’ Dungeon Master’s Guide you’re picking and choosing your rules from.


image credit: pinterest

In our own pre-apocalyptic world, authorities decry the vulgar chaos of slang, invoking religious tenets to crush any free-thinking, meaning-making, hooligan individualists. Though transubstatiated beyond immediate recognition, the language of religious authority retains its influential awesomeness even when put by blasphemers to secular use. This is a big deal to the Bastards on high. When a low-born wretch abuses the Word in this way, he besmirches the holiest of the Establishment’s relics: Round-the-clock maintenance of absolute social control by means of invoking some fragile yet essential purity, which must be protected from strange pollutants and new ideas.


image credit: pbworks

Consider now the secular appropriation of apocalypse in this context. We heathens describe catastrophic, life-changing — but not world-ending — events as apocalyptic. We set stories, movies, and video games after the death of the world. In the case of the secular appropriation of apocalypse, the purported purity in danger is ironically the purity of the horror of the Biblical event. In secular usage, an apocalypse is a standard revolution of the wheel of creation and destruction. The Old Way falls away and with it, its habits, its prescriptive grammar, its word-meanings both sacred and profane. The survivors are left behind to pick up the pieces and start the wretched cycle of cutthroat sectarianism anew. “We’re not talking about a learning experience or a new beginning,” warn the self-proclaimed originators of the word. “Your sinful soul will be judged! No take-backsies! Now, fall in line — or else!” These are the risks we take when we steal others’ special words.


image credit: tumblr

Secularization of religious language is at the soul of Chumbucket’s appeal. He calls Max “Saint.” He is ever praising, testifying, proclaiming, “Praise be! Praise be!” His exaltations belong as much to old time religion as to his garrulous eccentricity, his own individualistic audacity. When Chumbucket praises the “tranny on high” for his good fortune, we are just as quick to imagine a benevolent omniscient transsexual in the sky as we are to imagine the Holy Transmission of some god-car on the highways of Valhalla. In the same stream of consciousness, Chumbucket’s cries of “revolution upon revolution, rejoice!” mimic the physical motions of an 8-cylinder internal combustion engine, the next-best thing to the cyclical rhythms of a living world.

Addendum: Here’s a video for my Kickstarter which expires May 14. If you liked this article, please show your support!

Direct link to the project:

Post-Apocalyptic Production Values

A note to my loyal readers: Freelancing is fun and exciting and hard, hard work. Let me make it up to you.

Now that that’s out of the way, let me bring you up to speed. A new feature-length article is in the works and should hit the internets (all of ’em) sometime tomorrow. It deals with big budget AAA post-apocalyptic action titles — and the radioactive linguistic anomalies that emerge shortly after the roaches claim their inheritance.

Here’s a teaser: Big game studios routinely scavenge the least unsafe neighborhoods of revolutionary themes for the raw materials out of which they construct AAA post-apocalyptic action games. The scraps of ideological content are then sanitized, reshaped to the brink of recognition, and trucked out and sold to the huddled masses. The final products arrive as fresh-faced entertainments to be consumed in the comfort of your own unshakable establishment. This pattern is true of all action game protagonists: Che goes in, Rico comes out.

Stay tuned for the exciting conclusion.


All the Rage

In Kung Fury: Street Rage, the two-button endless beat-’em-up video game released simultaneously with the Kickstarter-funded eponymous 1980s grindhouse-chic short film (embedded below — caution: NSFW language and gratuitous hilarity), the Nazi war machine time travels to 1985 and does battle with Kung Fury himself, the best cop in the world.

Led in the film by a Kung Fu Hitler caricature – an unappealing phantom menace at the podium with neither a Goebbels to run the social media campaign nor an Eichmann to handle the grisly logistics and exquisite cowardice, the Nazis are the same hateable guys as they were in The Last Crusade, dressed here in the black gas masks of Wolfenstein: The New Order’s black military uniforms. You play as Kung Fury and you cannot win. The Nazis keep coming at you. (Consider Extra Credits’ musings on the similarly endless gameplay mechanics of Missile Command embedded below.) You lose your three hearts, fall at their greasy fascist boots. By the same token – more specifically, by the next token – you rise and, as in infinite runner games, the pattern begins anew. No end in sight.

Spoiler: The film’s absurd narrative – in effect, a prequel – culminates with the down but not out Kung Fuhrer himself escaping via time travel to the present, protected by his mechanical golden eagle. End Spoiler. If one accepts that there is a narrative to be found in the game, the narrative relies on a conceit of eternal struggle between the righteous and the tyrannical. Tricericop, the machine gunning viking, and Hackerman (the greatest hacker of all time) stand on the sideline and watch the action unfold like the audience members in a Street Fighter level. They are scenery, non-sentient, inconsequential, more like filler pixels than NPCs. The fight is not theirs to join. They will not play a role in the action. Spoiler: Lest they fall as Kung Fury’s first partner falls in the film, cut in twain in the street. End Spoiler. The game’s street is not theirs to rage in. This is between Kung Fury and the Nazi kung fu war machine.

image credit: sociorocketnewsen

If you have not seen the movie and you play the game, nothing directly tells you killing time traveling Hitler is your goal. With only the roof-top jump animation as exposition, the game comes across as an existentialist thought experiment. Try Again, Fail Again, Fail Better: The Game.

The gas masked foot soldiers, the lumbering arcade console monsters, the ninja blondes, the Aryans with two hit points may march menacingly towards you but your truest enemy is yourself. Your willing executioners are tangential, coincidental. Their deaths become collectively a means by which you beat your “Personal Best” high score.

image credit: pocketgamer

Although you do not win, the Nazis do not win either. When you have fallen, they stop their advance and stand and occupy the street with remarkable purposelessness, banal reminders of the military foolishness of their real-life doppelgangers.

Gat Country

Bro up! The dogs of war are at the door – and they brought aliens.

image credit: minus

image credit: minus

Free Lives hinted at a forthcoming alien invasion with the addition of Ellen Bropley some months back and Broforce has made contact with the Housekeeping Update. A word against reading on: In fashion, this post is not a review. The merits of Broforce will not be discussed. Rather, this post seeks to smash into Broforce and muse on the starstuff pixels exploding from it like spiders across the stars. Maybe you’ve heard this one before: Sagan, Kerouac, and Thompson were on the road somewhere outside Barstow, near the Pale Blue edge of the desert… Broforce’s crow-murder of expendable heroes is decadent and depraved. And like the work of Sagan, Kerouac, and Thompson, it expresses some hard truths about the American Dream.

image credit: google search

The South Africa based team at Free Lives has said in interviews that the intent of the game is to be “fun” without the appeals to “emotion” which, far too often, sap the fun out of gaming. (Examples: the sudden addition of emotionalism into Bulletstorm’s climax or pretty-when-she-cries Lara Croft looking extra pretty crying muddy in the firelight. An argument could be made to include Max Payne’s brand of humorous self-pity on the list.) Seeking to eliminate emotion from the picture, Free Lives identifies the game’s inspiration in that half-cocked juggernaut of consumer paraphernalia – 1980s and 1990s American action films.

That is to say, popcorn entertainment, something to stare at until you fall asleep on the couch. Guns, muscles, ‘splosions. Nevermind the Reagans with their brand new bag of the same old dirty tricks, the Jack Thompsons and the Tipper Gores, nevermind the regularly scheduled programming CNN interrupted to bring the SMF friends of Twisted Sister (link contains NSFW language) into your living room.

Broforce is a new game with old blood, a new cage built out of familiar bones. Out of one medium’s deconstruction (i.e. film’s) emerges a new whole – an altogether new construction in a different medium (i.e. video games) vis a vis capitalism’s ongoing assimilation of post-modern sensibilities. Forged in a similarly exquisite hell as was Renegade Ops, Free Lives’ Broforce conflates the action hero’s violent acts with acts of “liberation.”

To liberate an area implies a pre-existing condition of oppression in the area. Legitimate armies move to liberate an oppressed people from an oppressor. In modern language, the word used for the oppressor is the foreign-sounding “regime,” from the French for “regimen” – a dose of poison, if you will, on which the liberating forces act as activated charcoal. State 2 must act in the name of State 2’s people to rescue State 1’s people from State 1. Even if State 1 was here first.

image credit: google search

image credit: google search

Broforce can be interpreted as a parody, accidental or otherwise, of unilateral military action carried out by military contractors at the behest of the United States “government” (see also: state, regime), as evinced by a common pattern of gameplay. Broforce action hero takes ground, kills occupiers, flies the star spangled banner over the rubble and bones. Does not rinse off blood.

image credit:  game-sphere

image credit: game-sphere

Action hero repeats until the devil comes down to Vietnam. Action hero kills the devil – an incarnation of evil in a suspiciously Western suit and black tie.

image credit: google search

image credit: google search

Action hero hops on helicopter, and the area is carpet bombed into liberation. Obliteration is liberation and freedom is the only way, yeah.

image credit: blogspot

image credit: blogspot

Google “Broforce Murrica,” Murrica being a distinctly Texan pronunciation, and you would think by the results (as one reviewer suggests in an Early Access review) that the game is expressly concerned with parodying the Bush Doctrine of foreign policy and unilateral military action. In Broforce, good Americans (the few, the proud) take up arms and go to war with the devil, fighting to the last man. Linking Broforce directly to Texas is Brodell Walker, a play on the name of Chuck Norris’ character from his “Walker, Texas Ranger” TV show, itself the spiritual heir to the John Wayne mystique. Chuck Norris’ internet celebrity as the indomitable lawman from Texas owes as much to his action films as it does to the Alamo and its memory — not to mention the untimely loss of Bruce Lee.

American gamers can find a more useful interpretation of Broforce’s phantasmagoria of American M-16s on rock-n-roll in a jungleland full of inhuman foes (now more explicitly inhuman, with the addition of alien enemies in the November 2014 build), an interpretation inspired neither by the Bush Doctrine nor by the old chants of “Hey, hey! LBJ! How many kids did you kill today?” Nor is the appropriate reading dependent on assertions found in the liner notes of Lee Greenwood’s Proud to Be an American. Rather, I’d gladly stand up and argue that Broforce may, and should, be used to tell scary truths about American idealism, imperialism, and identity. As the developers say, their purpose was to make something new, a game you couldn’t make in the ’80s or ’90s.

I suggest that, by turning Broforce’s farcical nation-building guns on ourselves (boom-boom-boom, area liberated!), we can better understand the roots of the Great contemporary political Divide in the present-day U.S. of A. My reasoning for this begins here: Broforce is Free Lives’ South African take on an ultraviolent selection of Americana. As such, it is an effort of outsiders looking in. Adroit pop cultural emulation all but guarantees that idiosyncrasies invisible to the cultural native who has been conditioned to overlook them, will find daylight. Perpendicularly, same point, different axis of intersection: A new perspective brings its own selective blindness.

Take, for instance, this rhetorical from a developer: “Who would want to play a game about a South African action hero?” As an American with little experience of South African pop culture and littler comprehension of the broader cultural mentality, I think Nelson Mandela: Aparteid Smash, written by J.M. Coetzee, scored by Die Antwoord and narrated by Ninja, and with a visual aesthetic akin to District 9‘s playful-miserable grays-and-goops. And then I exclaim, “Yes! Let’s make this happen! To Kickstarter!” The developer provides a humorously inappropriate and (it would seem) distinctly South African example of his own. The punchline is lost on the British interviewer.

Good thing Broforce is just mindless entertainment. No politics, all fun. Otherwise, I would have you consider the chart below, comparing American Jim Crow laws with South African Apartheid.

Compare and Contrast: Apartheid and Jim Crow Laws

Jim Crow Laws Apartheid
General Explanation State and local restrictions based on “separate but equal” status for black Americans.  These circumstances led to “dejure segregation”  “apartness” system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party of South Africa.  “Minority rule” by white people was allowed by Dutch descendants. 
Timeline 1867-1965 1948-1994
Classifications Black vs. White Black, White, Colored, Indian
 Location State and Local level (United States) National Level (South Africa)
 Examples of Segregation Voting restrictions, segregation of public restaurants, facilities, schools, etc. Segregation of education, medical care, forced separation, etc.
Overturned Various Civil Rights Rulings:Brown v. Board of Education (1954)Civil Rights Act (1964)Voting Rights Act (1965)  Democratic elections in 1994 allowed the ANC’s (African National Congress) Nelson Mandela to become South Africa’s first black President.[data, text, and chart credit:]

The similarities noted above suggest that racist social policies (associated with the American South though found throughout the Union, too) share a kinship with Apartheid. Bearing in mind the legacy of Jim Crow in the South, we see that Broforce’s American huah bravado-as-substance is cut not from the cloth of the stars and stripes of the state of the Union (displayed prominently in the game) but, rather, from the stars and bars of the old Confederacy. Broforce serves as a remarkable image of Rebel Proud hubris and Republic of Texas bullheadedness, cast as it were in the red, white and blue of their mutual Union aggressor. Such is the duality of the Southern Thang.

The disgusting contingencies leading up to the divide at the Mason-Dixon line and those leading up to the Apartheid are beyond the scope of this post. Within scope, we can, and should, consider contemporary South African and American identities as scarred by institutionalized racism and, in a sense, unReconstructed. The racist practices of capitalism persist. In America, the institution of slavery has been re-branded and hidden from public view.

To the contemporary Yankee sensibility, the Rebel Proud phenomenon seems a ruse for racists, the stars and bars a klansman’s daytime hood. “What about Sherman’s March to the Sea, where the Union systematically trounced their cotton-pickin’ asses, do they fail to comprehend?” asks the Yankee. But the inquiry ends prematurely. “They must just all be racist idiots.” (Never a good blanket statement to make about a group.) Therefore, the Yankee mentality concludes, the flag must go. Down slams the star-spangled gavel. Case closed.

image credit: google search

image credit: google search

Of course, to destroy a symbol is to reinforce its legitimacy in the eyes of its followers. Rebel Proud, as a phenomenon, relies on the conceit that Lincoln’s unilateral action against his own people (history repeating playin’ reruns) marked a grave injustice – bloodthirsty persecution of women and men by a traitor charged to protect them and serve them.

To a Confederate loyalist, first blood is and will always remain on the tyrant Lincoln’s hands and the insurrection is a just response to “Northern aggression” from overzealous Feds. Our hypothetical Confederate loyalist is hypocritical when he forgets or overlooks the brutality of the inexcusable economic institution in whose defense he has taken up arms. (Fact: The first blood of the American Civil War was African and it was shed in a slaveship, centuries before the first shot rang out at Fort Sumpter.) Is our Confederate loyalist a wealthy Southern Democrat hellbent on continuing his own tyranny? Is he not a rich man but rather the vassal of one, willing but not without misgivings to do his boss’s bloody bidding? Is she a Southern belle comfortable in her position of stature and willing to hear the spinning wheel wear out the fingers of innumerable slavegirls to spare her own’s becoming hard and unladylike? Is she a worker, a servant, who sees collaboration as an ugly necessity and joins the war effort because she can knit or cook or carry supplies or tend to wounds and after all everyone she knows has joined up? Maybe for some, joining up was never about ideology but rather a compulsion brought on by waking up to the barn burning or receiving a letter from your sister-in-law that says your only brother bled out in a hog pen and they just left him there like a butchered animal an’ you sware vengeance ‘fore God Almighty ‘gainst the devils in the blue what put your brother in an early grave. Suddenly, the big war effort seems tangential, circumstantial, an unimportant prelude to the vendettas that steer the affected generation’s fates and the blood feuds which will plague the descendants.

Vendettas and blood feuds shape consciousness. Those who identify as coming from a military family talk about the “tradition” of joining the armed forces. They remind us of the local character of war. “Sit yourself down and hear tell about the wars what my daddy and granddaddy fought.” The specifics of the conflict are insubstantial in comparison to the sense of fulfilling one’s duty in service, of keeping the tradition alive. Bleed all you can bleed for the sacred blood feud. Make daddy, God, and country proud.

Simulations of the mass murder and pillaging which characterized Sherman’s March to the Sea would be right at home in Broforce’s jungle hellhole. Just think: Brodell Walker in place of the Man with No Name wandering into the Good dead space between the Bad and the Ugly. All it would take is another conceit, akin in absurdity to the one that allows for an army of battle-ready suicide bombers and certainly less absurd than balaklava wearing warriors allying themselves with aliens to fight American action hero ripoffs in a fully destructible Vietnam wrought with death-bringing mechs and Metal Sluggish helicopter war machines designed by Early Cuyler.

image credit: google search

image credit: google search

Consider the prevalence of depictions of violence against people from Asia and the Middle East in contemporary games marketed to continental Americans and Western Europeans, each Western entity with an astonishing track record of committing actual real-life obliterating violence in the name of liberation. In gaming media, pictures of liberation and obliteration continue to be made from the perspective of the liberators and not the liberated. Despite the emptiness of its bravado and its farcical presentation, Broforce does little to discourage the ugly tradition in game design of putting the player in the Western oppressor’s boots.

Local manifestations take precedence. Always. As a parting thought, I would have the reader consider Carl Sagan’s comments on the Pale Blue Dot photo. “That’s here. That’s home. That’s us… etc., etc.” sounds real nice, but his intention was not to say something cool to go on that poster in your dorm room, Bro.

image credit: theswash

image credit: theswash

Sagan’s intent — stated in the paragraphs immediately following the famous one, and in his later books — was to “underscore[sic] our responsibility” to avoid violent means and seek peaceful resolution in this terrifying nuclear age. We might say, with the same sentiment, that from the perspective of the Voyager 1 every war is a civil war. Brothers killing brothers, bros killing bros… Shudder at the thought but save your breath, bro. In space, no one can hear you scream.

Sticks, Stones, and Snakes on a Dame: The Ballad of Tomb Raiden

Consider Lara Croft’s character in the above ad for the Game of the Year reissue of 2014’s Tomb Raider. Down, down she tumbles into the tomb like Alice into Wonderland, crying out like any number of woman-in-peril tropes. (Was she pushed?) “Ugh! I hate tombs!” she exclaims and stands still for the camera to remind us that she is still cute under all that dirt. Then she slips. A common motif.

A pattern emerges in 2013’s Tomb Raider: Lara meets (or, rather, is confronted by) a new obstacle, Lara emotes frustration, Lara cheers herself on with Rosie the Riveter’s can-do spirit – a gal in a guy’s dangerous world. Acting as her own Number-One Fan, Lara embodies problematic aspects of classical femininity, such as ambivalence, feeling too much and thinking too little, and not the boyish naivete common to hero narratives but its ditsy sister, innocence. A hero begins naïve, becomes wise. Our heroine begins innocent. What’s the opposite of innocent? Fallen, besmirched, corrupted.

A reboot differentiates itself from a shot-for-shot remake with a new story arc for an old story, so let’s look at Tomb Raider’s new beginning and ending. (For corroboration’s sake, please refer to the first minute and last minute of the embedded video.)

In the exciting opening cut scene we see Lara rescued from drowning by a man’s outstretched hand, strong, assertive. “In our darkest moments,” Lara says in voice over, as we watch her panic and scream for help. She goes on: “We find something, something that keeps us going.” The screen cuts to black, followed immediately by the thrust of a man’s strong arm to save her. So this “something” that “we find” is not an internal resolve (gender neutral, available to all) but an external male-gendered power on whom we must rely and in whom we must have faith.

Before the player has any control over this new Lara, she owes her survival to a man. Is this the root of her need for affirmation throughout the adventure? He saved her, she could have died. Lara Croft – once the bossy confident femme fatale – now, for better or worse, meets danger with self-addressed cheering. At press, tellingly, a commenter exclaims on one post of the game’s cut scenes, “I remember when [Lara] was a bad ass who kicked ass, took names without taking punishment,” calling the new Lara “whiny.”

image credit: deviant art

The game’s final screen spells out tritely in super-imposed text the game’s tagline, “A Survivor is Born.” Are we to imagine that the bulk of the game’s action has occurred either in a birth canal or in utero, that every scrape and scratch and bloody murder has been a formative influence, a translation of RNA to DNA, an opportunity to grow? Kill by kill, our fetal hero overcomes another trouble to survive and be a survivor; she will survive, keep on survivin’. For our newborn survivor, to kill is to self-actualize; to give bloody birth to herself.

Complying with established tropes and indulging game-playing misogynists, the game presents an antisexualistic cosmic reality, supernaturally influenced and organized by a goddess, at that! – in which the only good virgin is a sacrificed virgin, sacrificed by copulation or crucifixion, by transubstantiation or by fire, as Lara’s friend Sam will learn.

According to the commercial spot as history lesson above, if some developers had got their way (conversation begins at 3:37), Lara herself would have been such an ill-fated lamb, trapped forever under the weight of a collapsing tomb. Just desserts for a disobedient woman, symbol of the tyrannical feminine, wannabe “Taskmaster.” (Listening to these guys bro out, we commend Lara’s creator Toby Gard for disavowing the character, as he did back in 1996, because he disagreed with the misogynistic direction the direct sequels were heading.)

image credit: fakeposters

The third act plays out as a new, if not particularly inventive, position for the old princess-saving ceremony, set to the slam-bang tune of “Bring Us the Girl. Wipe Away the undead samurais.” Sam acts, or rather is acted upon, as the Princess Toadstool to Lara’s Mario, Zelda to Lara’s Link. Lara equivocates her own murderous actions to defenses of Sam’s girlish innocence in peril. Sam prizes her good name and its accompanying perceived purity, the source of her worth as an object without personal agency. If the new Tomb Raider has a romantic element, it is Lara’s obsession with Sam. Brave souls with time to kill can check out the corner of YouTube featuring scenes between Sam and Lara set to songs such as “She Will Be Loved” and, more fittingly, the stalker anthem “Every Breath You Take.” (You can find that one on your own.)

Before? image credit: cosplay cavern (possibly nsfw)

Try this experiment: Reassign our protagonist’s sex, make a he of our she. Diminish none of the hyper-sexuality. Rather, transform our combat-ready Aphrodite into Mars the rake, a war-god ready for love: expand the frame, broaden the shoulders, deflate and reshape breasts into powerful pecs, chisel out a six-pack (inguinal crease included), accentuate the muscles of the back, shape the thighs and calves with hypertrophic definition. Finally, and this is an all-important step, cram lust objects of impractical, if not impossible, dimensions down his pants. The public wants to see their shapeliness outlined in the fabric around the front zipper of the BDUs. Where once the jiggle determined an object’s desirableness, let there be engorgement.

After? image credit: google image search

“I can do this,” says our new male-identified protagonist. He is his own greatest cheerleader. Examples exist, in the action-adventure genre of the game state, of male characters talking to themselves, expressing self-doubt, mocking their own foolishness, even giving themselves a little pep-talk. But can we find a male equivalent of Lara’s self-abasing emotionalism, her sheepishness, her incessant need for affirmation from external sources? I can think of one in particular.

Whine on, you crazy diamond. image credit: google image search

Whine on, you crazy diamond. image credit: google image search

Mixed Media Platforming

A wire of recent events: controversial game designer cancels anticipated sequel to brilliant debut, announces exit from industry; reclaims spotlight on April 1, declares return to industry and reactivation of sequel project.

image credit: games reviews

image credit: games reviews via google

image credit: front towards gamer

image credit: front towards gamer via google

The fates of two mythic figures come to mind: Icarus, his wings singed, falls back to earth; Sisyphus, existentialism’s unwitting posterboy, feels the boulder slow, stop, and roll against his will. Icarus for his direct disobedience of his father’s low-flying wishes, Sisyphus for his condemnable cunning and mendacity, each must answer to punishment administered by gravity. Indeed, in reflection, we associate the arbitrary force of gravity with the transformation of hubris into humility. We return, and we are returned, to earth.

Our avatar pauses at the edge to look out at the emptiness between this lonely platform and that lonely platform. We understand – perhaps better than he does, if he has yet to fall – the great tyrant oppressing him is gravity. He leaps and falls in accordance with inalienable physical law. Our side-scrolling avatar moves not through but across the world in leaps and bounds. In the early days of side-scrolling platforming, he even found his identity in his work. He was a jumpman.

image credit: Michael Todd Games

image credit: Michael Todd Games

In this post, we bear in mind the fates of Icarus and Sisyphus as we explore two pieces of the modern platforming revival, each game unique and vital to the discourse: Trapdoor and Polytron Corporation’s 2012 release FEZ, a two-and-three dimensional shape-shifter about a two-dimensional character named Gomez who embarks on a quirky non-violent quest for three-dimensionality, created by a subject of a polarizing controversy; and Michael Todd Games’ 2013 release Electronic Super Joy, an orgiastic EDM-cranked adventure of an absurd hero (survivor of the Disco Wars of 1515, etc.) on a heretical quest to reacquire his missing butt by any means necessary.

image credit: Michael Todd Games

image credit: Michael Todd Games

In each of these examples, gravity plots to fulfill its dirty promise of violent death but of the two games only ESJ features enemy combatants. We must acknowledge FEZ’s revolutionary pacifism, its fulfillment of the promise to create compelling gameplay without violence, without enemies. We can see FEZ, also, as a return to puzzle-focused jumpman form for the platforming genre.

FEZ starts twice in the first five minutes of the game: first in 2-D, coming across as a fresh interpretation of Cave Story until, just as the story gets going, the game crashes, mimicking the sudden pixel-platters and atonal whining of an NES game on the fritz. We endure a false BIOS screen and return to the start screen in 2-D with 3-D rotation and a new pixel-and-polygon art style. Gomez can have his power to transcend dimensional limits. He must yet answer to gravity. Physical law maintains governance over his existence, should he jump too early or too late; should he linger for too long in the sky.

image credit: Polytron Corporation

image credit: Polytron Corporation

Viewed from our angle, FEZ represents equal parts genius innovation and reckless ambition. We liken Gomez’s adventuring between dimensions to Icarus’s soaring on wax wings in the sunshine. (Permit us, now, a diversion into poetics, as it will serve to inform more directly topical judgments of FEZ.) As the speaker of W. H. Auden’s poem Musee des Beaux Arts sees a guiding hubris in Brueghel’s Icarus, we see in Gomez a guiding hubris, a desire to explore forbidden dimensions of experience. For Icarus, it was the air; for Gomez, it is the third dimension of space. Auden, a radical of the written word, slips revolutionary values between stanzas. His speaker points out the cold responses of the countryfolk to the tragic drowning of Icarus. We do not stop to take in the suffering of Icarus. Life goes “dully along.” This, we are told, is the “human position” of suffering.

image credit: Polytron Corporation

image credit: Polytron Corporation

FEZ’s breakout moment arrived in the 2012 documentary Indie Game: The Movie. We learn that its creator, Phil Fish, has scrapped his FEZ designs and started anew multiple times. He discusses early projects, demos an experimental game prototype by sitting and staring into the flickering lights of a home-made Virtual Boy, intent on altering his perception. (Perhaps a carryover from this earlier work, flickering shapes figure prominently in FEZ.) He shares upsetting details of his personal life and brings up suicide, with a disquieting deadpan sincerity, as an option for himself, were FEZ to fail. (Those among us who have stood on the ledge and stared out into the abyss withhold judgment.)

A similarly tragic eccentric, Albert Camus reads into the myth of Sisyphus his deliberately absurd, suicide-contemplating brand of existentialism. The myth tells the story of a prideful king condemned to roll a stone up a hillside, watch it roll back down, and do it again. Camus’ macabre takeaway from the story suggests Sisyphus finds angry satisfaction in the inherently meaningless struggle. “We must imagine Sisyphus happy,” goes his most famous contribution to the discourse, challenging us to create meaning from chosen suffering.

Battle-hardened gamers bring a similar contempt to hardcore platforming. Run, jump, fall, die. Again. Run, jump, strike, miss, fall, die. Again. No satisfaction, no check point. Back to the start. Run, not fast enough. Again. Continue? Of course, continue. Dead. Back to start. Try again. Having fun yet?

image credit: Michael Todd Games

image credit: Michael Todd Games

Cold and merciless to human suffering, the world keeps turning, and we arrive at the traditional two-dimensionality and ecstatic boom-ba-doom-boom bass in Electronic Super Joy. In this 2013 release from Michael Todd Games, we take control of a one-armed, one-eyed, legless, entirely butt-less individual in an absurd cubic world divided into four sets of levels. ESJ’s level design brings to mind Braid‘s rule-making and rule-breaking puzzle sequences. One level bestows a smashing new ability upon our avatar, another redefines gravity’s intensity, still another trades smash in for the double-jump. Musically, the thump-tick thump-ticking soundtrack fades out and in, some intervals eight-bars, some four-, others sixteen-bars. Like any good rave, Electronic Super Joy’s world is populated by benevolent head-bobbing shadow-dwellers, hot-and-heavy howling, heresy-enthusiasts, rainbow-trails, and sudden comedowns.

As a genre, platforming experiments with perception by attaching player-constructed meaning (and high-stakes immediacy) to relationships among physical bodies. In other words, we base our avatar’s actions, first and foremost, on changes of shapes (i.e. platform, abyss, enemy rocket nearing our precious one hit-point wonder of an avatar, etc.) within our avatar’s immediate environment. An enemy rocket homing in on our avatar elicits action on the player’s part more intensely than, say, one’s desire to learn the details leading up to the Disco Wars of 1515. Shots fired danger-close turn each survivor of the attack into either an absurd whisky priest or a meaning-making existentialist. ‘Fraid we’re all outter whisky, Bub…

Michael Todd, creator of ESJ, gives lectures which put game design in multiple contexts, intermingling suggestions regarding “lifestyle and balance for game developers” with insider info and strategies for the programmer wanting to stand out to an employer. Follow the link to Michael Todd’s legendary 2009 PAX lecture (great content, imperfect mic). Todd’s emphasis on positive coping strategies for programmers becomes more poignant in the context of Fish’s public meltdown. Game design is a solitary act, like writing strictly structured poetry, especially for independent programmers. Sitting alone with uncooperative myths and legends of your own creation, obsessing over them, working out the bugs. We do not excuse Phil Fish’s Twitter meltdown, public tantrums, and empty threat-making. We stand in solidarity with indie gaming innovation.

The topic’s gravity brings the post to a close as it began. Absent from the Indie Game: The Movie interview with Fish is FEZ’s irreverence and adventurousness. He seems defeated, bogged-down by ambitious vision. In the months following the interview, Phil Fish released FEZ to near universal acclaim. Then, quickly as he appeared, in a tradition borrowed from Hollywood actresses and musical prodigies, he abandoned his creative post, choosing exile over collaboration with a gaming industrial complex. At press time, the writer can only speculate as to whether Phil Fish has indeed returned to jotting notes for a sequel to his masterpiece (as we, along with louder voices in the industry, wish to believe).

In the meantime, in sincerity and goodwill, we must imagine Phil Fish happy.

No, I Won’t Take Your Hand and Marry the Game State

Capitalists move in, assimilate your battle-hardened ideals into hope-and-change plush commodities, all rhetoric and no fire; you are waiting for the collector’s editions to go on sale. You watch the trades closely these days. You do not apologize, your conscience is clean. Out in the streets somewhere, somebody in a balaclava sees his reflection in the proverbial corporate coffeehouse window. You would have us imagine the man in the mirror and how he must feel, next time we reach for the brick.


image credit: sean mort via reddit

Presently in the gaming world, designers and gamers wish to shatter the two-dimensionality of linear gameplay by forcing into it meaningful decision-making, a buzzword describing algorithm-guided sudden obligations for the gamer to bend and, in some instances, redirect his avatar’s story arc. (Click the preceding link for an in-depth examination of the meaningful decision-making craze by one of its enthusiastic proponents.)

As we gamers are not our avatars; as we cannot live in fiction as our favorite characters do; as we cannot share experiences with the pictures of people on the screen – though it can be fun to pretend; the meaningful decision-making craze, like its literary counter-part the Choose Your Own Adventure novel or the gamebook, opens up the medium to one-note moralizing *link contains Telltale’s Walking Dead spoilers* about individual will. (To be clear, there is a sublime, absurd exception to every natural law.)

This is my brick; there are many like it but this one is mine: released in 2013, amid both the meaningful decision-making craze and an upsurge in self-criticism among gaming industry elites about depictions of women and femininity in gaming, Rockstar Games’ Max Payne 3 can be interpreted, and should be interpreted, as a standout example of linear gameplay done right; as the action genre’s rebuttal to the claim that linearity means predictably bad writing; and, importantly, as emblematic of the need for the gaming industry to its own boyishness (link potentially Not Safe For Work) and do some growing up.


image credit: Rockstar Games

In this extended post, we use Max Payne 3 as a venue in which to explore linear gameplay and non-chronological storytelling — the art of the effective flashback, if you will; sexism in gaming; gaming’s role in maintaining capitalism as an institution; and capitalism’s misapprehension of womanhood. We put the meaningful decision-making craze in a position within the context of a dying industry hellbent on providing (money-making) interactive cinematic experiences.

Fans of the Max Payne series know from the outset that Max has a track record of making the deaths of his wife and daughter all about him and what he wants. He is a shootdodging anachronism: a present-day film-noir figure, the surviving patsy of a corporate conspiracy; an absurdly named alcoholic ex-cop; a narcissist and an eternal widower incapable of protecting those dear to him, dependent on pain killers pick-pocketed from the bodies of fallen perps; quick to anger yet calculating in combat.

At its root, Max Payne 3’s linear gameplay and non-chronological narrative exploit the unhealthy relationship between boys and guns, between masculine identity and male misapprehension of the complexities of womanhood under capitalism.

The opening cutscenes of Max Payne 3 trade in the graphic novel presentation established in the first two games for an overblown cinematic style of which Tony Scott would be proud. As the scenes unfold, they add to Max’s anachronistic identity some new positions for the bloody old ceremony: American bodyguard to the heiress of the wealthy Branco family in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Great, another damsel-in-distress to protect from armed thugs. No way Max will screw this up*SPOILERS*

Game critic and novelist Yahtzee Croshaw takes issue with the disconnect between Max Payne’s self-loathing and his murderous gift of bullet-time perception (the franchise’s defining gameplay gimmick, an exploit of the popularity of The Matrix film franchise). He goes on to describe Max – rightly – as “completely lacking in self-awareness” (4:17 in Zero Punctuation’s review). To be sure, Max Payne is the unwitting digital torch-bearer of the Cain- and, later, Hammett- and Chandler-tradition of perceptive anti-heroes haunted by inextinguishable alcoholic dread and bad timing in all aspects of life not involving the quick-draw of one’s guns. Max Payne has brief episodes of Bogie’s despair-as-cool, preferring to it, instead, pitch-perfect impersonations of Robert Mitchum’s desirous insularity, a man apart in a mad, mad world full of bad men with guns.


image credit: Rockstar Games

In Max Payne 3, all of Max’s enemies in the single-player campaign are young men: strong, fierce, eager to prove something, especially if they can prove it by intimidating, coercing, and kidnapping women. Women appear as bystanders and victims, in the ritzy dance club and, later, in the dive strip club, femininity sexualized on a pedestal for men’s amusement, turned meek and defenseless under fire. Strippers: the classic embodiment of capitalism misapprehension of, and aversion to, the feminine mystique.

The objectification of women in mass media — and, especially, gaming’s willingness to sexualize women while conforming strictly to the edicts of the heterosexual male gaze in cinema (non-threatening powerless naked women, men as strength and influence, possessors of women) comes across as foul pandering to the ogre-fratboy demographic. To illustrate, in the flashback to the Hoboken bar, which serves, primarily, to introduce Raul Passos as a deciding factor in the Max Payne pre-Sao Paulo mythos, we watch a woman – drunk, rough around the edges, a perfect fit for Max, really – who tries to get Max’s attention. He seems disinterested, appearing – temporarily – to have learned from his femme-fatale-chasing mistakes. It is she who fatefully exacerbates Max’s conflict with Tony DeMarco, whose murder will give Max incentive to get out of Dodge.

DeMarco calls the woman a whore and slaps her. As gamers (bullied in school for our presumed meekness or perhaps ourselves survivors of violent domestic disputes), we feel outraged at DeMarco’s display of physical violence. We may recoil, too, from the designer’s decisions to allow the men in the scene means and agency to assert power effectively via physical violence and, yet, to deny the same means and agency, arbitrarily, to the only woman in the scene. In fact, Max describes the woman in both diminutive and masculine terms — as a “girl” having the “balls” to speak up, effectively denying her feminine identity at the precise moment that her actions have an impact on the story. At DeMarco’s inexcusable transgression, Max the avatar makes a meaningful decision without the player’s input, independent of one’s own values: he avenges the woman, chooses to put a bullet in the gangster wannabe.


image credit: Max Payne Wiki

Take note: it is Max’s decision to shoot the kid in the bar, but the game designers have left the dirty work of pulling the trigger to the player. Cutscene becomes interactive — without an intrusive HUD, like the quick time events of ye rare olde tymes. If we do not pull the trigger, Max dies, we watch him die – again, we are not our avatars – and the game immediately returns us to the moment of decision. So, we consent to the parody of choice and give the game the blood it demands.

The immediate price of our consent for our avatar: the player’s “decision” to pull the trigger has turned Max into a marked man in his mob-run American town. Now, forget the avatar: a person sits in front of a screen and actively chooses to participate in the drama on the screen, agrees to perpetrate simulated violence for the sake of moving the story along — and because we don’t like DeMarco, this punk has it coming, he deserves to die.

As further evidence of Max Payne 3’s detournement of meaningful decision-making, examine the achievement The Only Choice Given: the player chooses not to pull the trigger on a dying enemy, whom Max has just struck down and who bleeds out, anyway. Decisions, decisions.

DeMarco’s execution and The Only Choice Given are not anomalies in gaming. They express the same sentiment presented by the hilarious Red or Blue door “decision” in Saints Row IV, in which the avatar either agrees, potentially, to sacrifice all of mankind or to kill himself — at which point the credits roll, the game is over, and the player has failed the mission. In both Max Payne 3 and Saints Row IV and indeed in all violent video games, ultra-violence is made palatable by its occurring in simulation, in gaming’s digital world.

The creation of our beloved digital world is politically charged. As gamers, we desire the luxury of an electronic life, invite and accept a digital diversion from the dreary life with others, on the condition that the diversion allows for gratifying interactivity: good controls, challenge, achievements. Just give us that payoff (we’ve paid for). Concurrently, an individual gamer, identifying as a citizen of the world in the colors of a revolutionary, feels aversion to slave-wage labor, men with machetes outside precious metal-mining operations, petroleum-based plastics involved in packing, gas burned in shipping, etc. used by the capitalist – that state-sanctioned hoodlum – to construct electronic technology. Give me the loot, declares the consumer, in fantastic emulation of his capitalist overlords; spare me the bloody sob story bio of paupers made poorer by contingencies attached to my decision to gain technological access to a designer’s digital daydreams. As Max Payne 3 is an interactive intellectual property distributed for private gain, its sardonic dialogues on capitalism belong in a sociopolitical context – in particular, ours.

A person’s decision-making in the real world is made meaningful by its impact on oneself and others. In our lives, we forge an uneasy peace with pixel-production, its attending industry. We stand tall and face the charges of radicalism from gaming peers. Can the revolutionary gamer, in the same breath, deny charges of collaboration from revolutionaries rallying in the streets? Our revolution will be brought in not through a window but through a flat screen. In the quiet before the storm, we crouch in our dark places, hyper-focused, supporting metal-mining and its attending atrocities to dodge pretend bullets in our cyber-lives; all as we hope — against cataclysms of evidence — that the meek, of whom we fancy ourselves protectors, survive to inherit what is left of the earth.

We have selected and purchased a license to play the game, consented to Cloud saving methods and permitted anti-piracy safeguards access to our hard drives. Beyond the game’s sardonic commentary is the reality of anti-capitalist concepts subsumed by privatized intellectual property, trademarked with all rights reserved. When the brass of Rockstar Games claim to prefer anonymity, we imagine the anonymity of pampered lives, anonymity complete with stock options and art auctions: decadent companion pieces to the programming sweatshops.


image credit: banksy/the simpsons

Recall the drama of brick and window. We return to it as the crosses the two-dimensional plane. The speed of things slows as brick connects with glass. As an observer, take in the airborne tufts of glass shattering where the brick pushes through. Slower, even slower now: loose quartz crystals breaking from the pane in plumes.

Through the best of times, through the worst of times, time determines our changes and, therefore, it gives our changes meanings. The past consumes our previous selves, lovers, the neighbors, first pet, that homeroom teacher you never really cared for, your last pet, your last anything, my only life, yours. No difference, rejoiced or lamented. In the Max Payne trilogy, time cannot be stopped or rewound; rather, adrenaline sharpens one’s obsessive perception to cut into the near-infinite nanoseconds when a bullet sheds its shell, pops hollow-tipped out of the barrel, and spins into the great wide-open like a heavy metal ballerina burning bright in a tutu of kinetic hot air.

To begin, again, at the beginning: the game opens in the middle of things. “Say what you want about Americans but we understand capitalism,” Max says in narration over the game’s first cut scene, before the player has had any input in the action. Max’s head is shaved; we have never seen him looking so rough. He stands with a gun over a man with severe skin burns and clothes smoldering. “You buy yourself a product and you get what you pay for.” Max identifies himself as a villainous product; hired killer bought and paid for; an “angry gringo,” imported from the U.S.; “a dime-store Angel of Death,” destructive to others and to himself, not an avenger of his wife and baby girl’s deaths (as we have come to expect him to identify himself, no matter how falsely it rings) but a perpetrator, a “rent-a-clown” murdering “other bad guys” for money.

max payne3

image credit: Rockstar Games

We the gamers have stakes in similar arrangements. We feel uncomfortable with our own complicity in the capitalism funding our gaming operation. Like Max says, we understand capitalism; we got exactly what we paid for. We, too, have hired Max to kill for us.

Trolling the Bastards On the Bridge

Even before one opens the executable to play a game, the level of interactivity the player will be permitted has been predetermined by factory-set parameters. Simple, stringent, and closed to discussion is the politics of consent regarding the use of interactive media. A prospective player faces two options: either participate in the game, and thereby comply with the rules of the game and accept one’s new identity as a ward of the game state; or abstain from the game. “With us or against us, Player One. What’ll it be?” Depending on the particular game’s present status in gaming forums, the foul fruits of one’s resisting the temptation to play it may be unpalatable anonymity or, far worse, a bitter stigma on one’s name: obstructionist; hater; troll.

The writer treads softly, carries a big stick. By one’s own contrariwise nature, the writer of this article could be branded, rightly or falsely, a troll. That monster without a country, the troll has come to represent the harshest voices in the public forum, characterized by abrasiveness for its own sake. Like other buzzwords with origins on the internet, the act of trolling must be crowd-sourced to be understood. Definitions of trolling abound. Academics have wrestled with it. The business savvy have employed its ugly methods. Working-class heroes and hate-mongering scoundrels fit the bill.

Important to our cause: two fiercely trolled franchises mentioned in the previous post have special places in the hearts of censorship-hating gamers. That Caesarimitating controversy-stirring lover of movies, the late Roger Ebert, was branded a troll (by other trolls) for speaking his mind on the subject of gaming’s place in the Zeitgeist. The abrasiveness of trolls, matched in intensity by their ingrown loneliness for freaks like themselves.

Let’s think, now, about the proverbial troll under the bridge. Classically, he is seen as a villain, his hunger reprehensible and his tactics those of intimidation and terror. To the moral absolutists on the bridge, he is mad, snarling, a would-be devourer of the defenseless. The troll’s physical position under the bridge separates him from the billy goats on the bridge, their culture and its prevailing ideologies. He dwells in a shadow realm between two fields, two worlds. In the story, the picture of justice features greener pastures for meek billy goats and death by violence for vulgar trolls.

Turn the tables, give the bridge-promenading billy goats the bad name. What need does a billy goat have of a bridge? They swim just fine and go where they please, impervious to gravity – trolling physics, as it were.


The backwardness of the trolling label does not stop there: if an internet troll is, essentially, a bully, wouldn’t a more hurtful label be one which evokes the big bad third billy goat who trounces the troll? Perhaps, but to give the question its due regard, we would have to play the internet troll’s game.

House of Gat

A conservative gamer’s sentimental perspective not without merit: beating the game used to mean something. It was a sign of compliance with the game’s demands. You had to have the willingness and the follow-through to complete the series of expected tasks in the order in which they were prescribed. There was little wiggle-room for diversions unrelated to the primary objectives. It was simpler time in gaming. That’s all gone now.

glory days

image credit: gamingdead

In this brave new open-world of post-Grand Theft Auto III gaming, designers are sick and tired of punk gamers beating their ultra-violent action-adventure games. With the October 2001 release of GTA III, the teams at Rockstar Games accomplished a grand theft of the entire interactive gaming industry and, particularly, a takeover and makeover of the action-adventure genre’s rules and aesthetics. In modern gaming, progress is scored by completeness, success in percentages of total quests checked off, cold math where the old high score board once glowed in glory. Heroes once. Now, look at us – blood-spattered errand boys.

Rockstar Games

image credit: Rockstar Games

An imperfect illustration of gaming’s evolution from linear design to nonlinear design: imagine a dark closet – three walls and one door covered in posters of Amiga and Atari games. Barring the occasional moment of Rogueness, one can walk untransformed in a linear progression from one end of the closet to the other. Now, situate this closet at the mid-point of a cubic labyrinth of hallways and doors beyond which are more hallways, more doors.

With GTA III, gaming came out of the closet of linearity, erected some new hallways, put in a few more doors, and promised us the blueprint of a dream home. Today, that glorious dream home is a reality. Game design has expanded exponentially in self-similar sharp angles, more hallways, even more doors. (The first of many hallways where everything looks the same and all you want to do is go back in the closet, that’s GTA IV.) Modern gamers have inherited anonymous McMansions of organized complexity and have grown accustomed to echoed footsteps and the creak-creak groans of a foundation three sizes too small.


image credit: Rockstar Games

Mainstream conservative perspective without merit: the popularity of Grand Theft Auto, and therefore the popularity of its imitators, has crippled the gaming public’s sense of empathy, has increased aggressiveness and bullying, and (depending on the severity of your source’s conservative indoctrination) may be responsible for anti-Americanism (whatever that might be), terrorism (read: violence stigmatized and deemed illegitimate by the State), and better or worse driving. Many gamers cry witch-hunt at any association of simulated violence with acts of actual violence. Our games will not be your scapegoat, they cry. Count the writer of this article among the flock of gamers which believes that only the foolhardy would make pariahs of pop culture sensations and thought-criminals of innocent fun-loving video game enthusiasts.

One has no intention of participating in chicken-or-egg arguments regarding violence in the real world and works of the violent imagination. Rather, for our purposes, one wishes to cast the legacy of the GTA franchise in a softer light and view it through an industry-wide lens. Focusing on trends in game design, we see the legacy of the GTA franchise as two-fold: innovation and imitation. GTA III bestowed upon the gaming community the right to free-roam through an open world of varying eventualities and random encounters. With its patterns of purchase and play, the gaming community has responded in recent years by retroactively declaring inalienable the newly recognized digital liberty of free-roaming open-world exploration. Out with old-school linearity and in with – well, lots and lots of walking around and looking for random dudes to slay.

Rockstar Games followed the unprecedented success of GTA III with two similar titles. Just as Rockstar Games hit its stride, its loyal fans were made to grapple with the outstanding accomplishment and unforgivable filler-as-action hubris of GTA IV. Its unwelcome earnestness and dark tone stirred a new sort of controversy: some critics wondered aloud whether Rockstar Games was washed-up.

Sharing in the contemporary sea change from linearity to free-roaming, other popular franchises would have action-adventure gamers become modern digital bean-counting companion to the hit-point-obsessed table-top role-players drooling on their Dungeon Master’s Guides in the days of yore.

We can see the feverish explosion of open-world gaming as innovation’s legacy or imitation’s fallout, a welcome changing of the guard or an unjust coup d’etat, but we cannot ignore it. We feel Rockstar Games’ influence, for instance, in Deep Silver Volition’s Saints Row series, another free-roaming, car-jacking, cop-killing, crime epic with all the requisite open-ended gameplay elements. First released in 2003, the original Saints Row has produced three sequels and has made a cult icon of its lovable bad boy Johnny Gat. The madness of 2008’s Saints Row 2 secured the franchise credibility among respected voices, whereas Saints Row: The Third (2011) served as a marketing experiment in brand-awareness.

brand awareness

image credit: Volition

If Rockstar Games wrote the floor-plan and laid the foundation; if, in essence, all open-world action-adventure gaming makes its home in the house that GTA built; then it is the same house that Gat rented out for a decade-long weekend and which he has, with 2013’s Saints Row IV, at last burned to the ground. Saints Row IV breaks franchise form and elects the player’s crime-doing avatar to the Oval Office. Aliens invade, interrupt the Presidency, abduct the Cabinet, enslave humanity in a digital Matrix-like prison yard full of rogue code which can be collected and redeemed for death-becoming worlds-destroying straight up bonkers super-powers. It is a lunatic plot most accommodating to open-world exploration and its love-it-or-hate-it trademarks, such as non-linearity, side missions, random encounters, hidden collectibles, expansive customization options and level-based character-building – and over-powered mayhem.

Pop cultural score-keepers would be right to appraise Saints Row IV’s anything-goes silliness as an affront to GTA IV’s tone-related missteps; the same score-keepers would be right to tie Saints Row IV’s deviation from franchise form to GTA V’s 2013 return to the cold-blooded zaniness of its roots. Insofar as Saints Row IV’s legacy is concerned, it would be best, for the moment, to remain conservative.